What Is Post-Concussion Syndrome

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What Is Post-Concussion Syndrome

Post by Admin on Sat Feb 14, 2015 11:35 pm

[url=source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-concus...]Source[/url]

WHAT IS POST-CONCUSSION SYNDROME?

Post-concussion syndrome, also known as postconcussive syndrome or PCS, is a set of symptoms that may continue for weeks, months, or a year or more after a concussion – a minor form of traumatic brain injury (TBI).

The rates of PCS vary, but most studies report that about 15% of individuals with a history of a single concussion develop persistent symptoms associated with the injury. A diagnosis may be made when symptoms resulting from concussion last for more than three months after the injury. Loss of consciousness is not required for a diagnosis of concussion or post-concussion syndrome.

The condition is associated with a wide range of symptoms: physical, such as headache; cognitive, such as difficulty concentrating; and emotional and behavioural, such as irritability. Many of the symptoms associated with PCS are common or may be exacerbated by other disorders, so there is considerable risk of misdiagnosis. Headaches that occur after a concussion may feel like Migraine headaches or tension-type headaches. Most headaches are tension-type headaches, which may be associated with a neck injury that occurred at the same time of the head injury. Though there is no treatment for PCS, symptoms can be treated; medications and physical and behavioural therapy may be used, and individuals can be educated about symptoms and provided with the expectation of recovery.

The majority of PCS cases resolve after a period of time. It is not known what causes PCS to occur and persist, or why some people who suffer a minor traumatic brain injury later develop PCS while others do not. The nature of the syndrome and the diagnosis itself have been the subject of intense debate since the 19th century. However, certain risk factors have been identified; for example, preexisting medical or psychological conditions, expectations of disability, being female, and older age all increase the chances that someone will suffer PCS.  Physiological and psychological factors present before, during, and after the injury are all thought to be involved in the development of PCS. Some experts believe post-concussion symptoms are caused by structural damage to the brain or disruption of neurotransmitter systems, resulting from the impact that caused the concussion. Others believe that post-concussion symptoms are related to common psychological factors.  

Most common symptoms like headache, dizziness, and sleep problems are similar to those often experienced by individuals diagnosed with depression, anxiety, or post traumatic stress disorder. In many cases, both physiological effects of brain trauma and emotional reactions to these events play a role in the development of symptoms.
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